Salı, Ekim 30, 2012

All About Rize Tea


History

 HISTORY OF ÇAYKUR
Established as a State-Owned Enterprise (SOE) limited with its capital, autonomous in its activities having a legal entity under the name of General Directorate of Tea Enterprises (Çay-Kur) under Statutory Decree 112 dated 10.10.1983 based on code 2929 enacted in year 1983 (published in the Official Gazette with duplicated issue  no 18205 dated 28.10.1983).  This code has been amended by Statutory Decree with issue no 233. 

First serious attempt regarding cultivation of tea plant in Turkey was carried out in year 1888. In the book titled “Industrial and Commercial Geography” published by Governor of Mudanya, Hasan Fehmi graduated from Imperial School of Political Science in year 1892 in Istanbul, it was written that tea plants were imported from China through Esbaki İsmail Pasha, Minister of Commerce of that time. Tea saplings cultivated in several parts of Bursa city didn’t grow and same attempt was repeated in year 1892 but no result was achieved. Ecological conditions of Bursa city being not favorable for tea production and this situation not known in that time are the reason of failure of this nice attempt. However, with effect of habitude of drinking tea which became quickly widespread among people tea cultivation in Turkey became a subject which was spoken of and discussed continuously. Meanwhile, some articles and books, even if just a bit, were published regarding tea.      
Attempts regarding tea agriculture in Turkey developed after year 1917. In days following return of Batum and its environment to the homeland, a committee in which Professor and Assistant Director of Halkalı Agricultural School Ali Rıza ERTEN took his part, was appointed to make examinations in the region. According to the report issued upon examinations made, it was specified that Eastern Black Sea Region having similar ecology with Batum is favorable for cultivation of tea and citrus plants. 
Ali Rıza Erten mentioned in his said report that money paid for import of tea is very high after presenting technical details regarding agriculture and processing of tea. Erten recommended tea agriculture in Rize region due to its suitability in terms of ecology. Furthermore, he stated that it would be beneficial to take measures to ensure production of lemon, orange, mandarin and bamboo in the region. 
Ali Rıza Erten’s report was not taken into consideration due to primary events occurred following first world war. Eastern Black Sea Region’s people who went to Batum and its environment to earn money before the war and couldn’t find this opportunity after the war caused appearance of these problems more prominently and severely. Economic and social crisis appeared in the region, excessive migration due to unemployment necessitated establishment of income resources and business opportunities for local people. 
Important negotiations were made on these days in Turkish Grand National Assembly in order to solve the problem and create income resources for local people. At the end of long negotiations, by taking Ali Rıza Erten’s report issued in year 1917, Turkish Grand National Assembly was enacted the “code 407 regarding cultivation of hazelnut, orange, mandarin, lemon and tea in Rize Province and Borçka District” on 16 February 1924. Thus, tea agriculture was assured legally through this code. 
Garden Cultures Station was established in Rize to make preliminary trials regarding tea agriculture right after the code entered in force and to ensure development of fruit cultivation in the region. Zihni Derin, Agricultural Public Inspector was appointed to organize and execute activities. Rize agricultural officer was sent to Batum at the beginning of following year in order to get information and opinion and to buy tea seeds. Production of tea sapling was started in today’s Central Nursery Garden in Rize with an amount of tea seed bought in Batum. Zihni Derin went to Batum in the same year to make examinations on site.   
Saplings produced in Rize central nursery garden were distributed in one hand to local people and on the other hand, were dispatched to many of our cities to make production trials. Conditions available in these cities were not in conformity with ecology of tea specified in detail in Ali Rıza Erten’s report. Excitement for production and distribution of tea saplings decreased in the course of time in parallel with indifference of manufacturers. Manufacturers which were deprived of necessary support as well as had not enough information lost their interest towards tea agriculture since they didn’t know what future will bring. This situation continued until year 1933.
Upon adoption of self-sufficiency principle by the Government and establishment of a program in year 1933, tea agriculture in our country was brought to the agenda again.  However, two more years passed to establish the organization and to complete preparation activities. During the examination visit made by Pr. Muhlis Erkmen, Agricultural Minister of that time to Rize Region in year 1935 in company with a scientific committee, it was decided that region is suitable for development of tea agriculture and industry in all respects.  As a consequence, it was decided to solve tea problem definitively. Prof. Dr. Şevket Raşit Hatipoğlu, member of scientific committee mentioned necessary measures which should be taken in order to develop tea cultivation in our country together with technical and financial problems of tea cultivation in his book named Tea Economy in Turkey.         
Zihni Derin was appointed again in year 1937 to put tea agriculture in order and to implement it. With experience of years lost in the past, works which were controlled firmly, started to be executed more consciously and in a programmed manner. 
Since works gave positive results, works for establishment of tea gardens was started by importing 20 tons of tea seed from Batum in year 1937, 30 tons in year 1939 and 40 tons in year 1940 and. 
To develop and promote the region economically and socially and reduce social problems caused by migration, tea agriculture and industry was supported and promoted by the government for long years. First tea leaf harvest and dry tea production was implemented in year 1938. First tea processing plant was put into operation in Rize Central Nursery Garden. Gündoğdu and Uzunkaya Tea Plants were established in year 1941. 
With the decree enacted based on Tea Code 3788 dated 1940 and this code, agricultural tea fields were determined according to ecological principles from Araklı river to borders of the Soviet Union and as being 15 km from the coast. An area of 30 thousand decares was allocated for tea agriculture by taking tea consumption and import status into consideration and it was decided Ziraat Bankası to give interest-free 25 liras credit for 5 years. With the same decree, it was given permission to Hopa, Sürmene and Of for tea agriculture.   
With the code 3788 and the decree enacted based on this code, our country’s tea agriculture was assured and obligation of permission was imposed to those who will establish a tea garden. With the code 4223 titled Coffee and Tea Monopoly dated 20 May 1942, tea became monopoly and teas produced were delivered to Monopoly Administration. Following these legal developments, agricultural tea fields were extended and production quantity increased quickly. When fast increase of wet tea leaf production quantity reached at a level which can’t be processed in existing tea plants, it became obligatory to establish high capacity tea factories. Therefore, in year 1946, direction and execution of all activities related to tea was transferred to State Agricultural Affairs Office. The first tea factory having a capacity of 60 tons/ day was put into operation by the said institution in year 1947 in Rize, Fener District under the name Central Tea Factory. 
Tea consumption of Turkey increased 3 times during the period 1945- 1950. Therefore, agricultural tea fields were extended with the code 3788 and increased up to 65 thousand decares with code 574 enacted on 27.02.1950. Furthermore, in year 1950, it was decided to appoint Ministry of Agriculture to carry out tea agriculture and Ministry of Customs and Monopoly to carry out sales, processing and marketing of wet tea leaf. With Tea Code 6133 dated 10 July 1953, instead of extension of agricultural tea fields by law, Council of Ministers was entitled by the code 6133 dated 10 July 1953. Interest-free credit amount to be granted to manufacturers which will establish tea fields was increased to 350 liras from 75 liras per decare with the code 6754 dated 25 June 1956. Tea agriculture and tea manufacturers’ cooperatives were promoted by these codes enacted. 
With the decree 4/3840 dated 6 September 1955, tea field establishment permit was granted for Giresun Merkez, Bulancak, Keşap, Tirebolu, Görele from shores up to 15 km inside and 500 meters of height; with decree 4/9290 dated 22 July 1957 for Akköse, Kendi Güler, Tüfekçi, Ormancık, Çaybaşı, Taşçılar, Günebakan, Ulucami, Çalışanlar villages affiliated to Maçka. 
With the decree 6/9603 dated 3 February 1963, it was decided to register unrecorded 65 thousand decares of tea gardens and total agricultural tea area was increased to 265 thousand decares.  
Increase of agricultural tea fields and wet tea leaf production necessitated increase of number of tea processing factories and in year 1973, number of wet tea processing factories established was increased to 32 and in year 1985 to 45. 
Domestic consumption demand met by import activities until year 1963 started to be met by domestic production as of year 1963. 
Tea Authority Code 1497 entered into force on 4.12.1971. With this code, all activities including agriculture, production and marketing was transferred to General Directorate of Tea Authority. Started to have its operations in year 1973 in Rize as a State Owned Enterprise whose responsibility is limited with its capital, autonomous in its activities, having a legal entity. 
Tea Authority was taken under scope of State Owned Enterprise in order to continue its activities under the name “General Directorate of Tea Enterprises with the code 2929 enacted in year 1982. Tea agriculture, production, processing and sales were set free with the Tea Code 3092 enacted on 4.12.1984 published in the Official Gazette on 19.12.1984. Thus, real and legal persons were entitled to sell, purchase wet tea leaf from manufacturers, to process tea and to establish and operate tea packing factories. This code removed monopoly of the state over tea; public and private sectors were enabled to work together. However, determination of agricultural tea fields was left to the authority of Council of Ministers. Tea agriculture was prohibited except in fields determined by Council of Ministers and people who will establish a tea garden in regions falling under agricultural tea fields was obliged to get permission beforehand. 
General Directorate of Tea Enterprises was excluded of State Owned Enterprise by associating it with Prime Ministry with the code 4046 enacted on 24.11.1994 and taken in the scope of Public Economic Enterprises. 
The code 2929 was repealed by the Statutory Decree 233 enacted on 8.6.1984 and published on 14.12.1984 for re-regulation of State Owned Enterprises. Some provisions of the Statutory Decree 233 were amended by the Statutory Decree published on 29.01.1990. 
General Directorate of Tea Enterprises was excluded of State Owned Enterprise (Article 35) by associating it with Prime Ministry with the code 4046 enacted on 24.11.1994 and taken in the scope of Public Economic Enterprises. 
Main status of General Directorate of Tea Enterprises entered into force by being published in the Official Gazette with issue no 22853 dated 20.12.1996. Establishment continues to have its operations within the frame of this status in force. Çaykur which continued its activities from year 1996 until 1999 under Prime Ministry was associated with Ministry of Industry and Commerce on 12.01.1999 and again with Prime Ministry on 28.05.1999. 
Çaykur became an establishment of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs on 26 November 2002 pursuant to article 4 amended by the code 4060 and article 10 amended by the code 3313 of code 3046. 
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 BLACK TEAS
DESCRIPTION OF BLACK TEA: Fully oxidized tea variety produced from tea leaves harvested according to hoyle. 
 
1- PACKED BULK TEAS
a- GOLDEN HEADED
Among our highest quality teas produced by Çaykur especially for its consumers, we recommend it for those saying “I want to drink a good tea”. You will perceive Çaykur’s difference and enjoy tea by its naturality, scent and taste. 
b- BUD TEA
Our very special product which can be drunk always with pleasure with its stunning flavor, astringency and taste. 
c- TEA FLOWER
Our tea which can be drunk always with its steeping, bright color and different taste and stunning flavor. We recommend you especially to steep this tea by blending with gemma tea at the rate of 1/5. 
d- RİZE TOURIST
Our leading product, symbol of the image and brand which is available at all houses, enshrines in everybody’s heart with its unique and strong flavor and has a long-lasting past.  
e- TEA ADDICTS’ TEA
Our product put upon the market with the slogan “Turkey will be addicted to this tea” having soft taste which appeals to large masses and that tea addicts can drink always with pleasure. 
f- CAMELLIA
Our product having soft taste oferred to our consumers as a breakfast tea and which can be drunk with pleasure together with fellow conversations. 
g- BLACK SEA TEA
Our tea having soft taste produced as a result of careful blending of teas harvested in higher parts of Eastern Black Sea Region.  
2- TEA BAGS
a- BLACK FILTERING TEA BAG 
Our product with naturality and stunning flavor, intended to steep tea easily and which is prepared carefully for our consumers giving particular importance to value of time. 
b- TEA BAG FOR TEAPOT
Our outstanding product having an environmental friendly package which is prepared uniquely from tea bud’s finely curled particles, drunk with pleasure with its stunning flavor, easy to steep. 
c- GOLDEN FILTERING
Our first tea bag product put upon the market in our country which is carefully prepared for our consumers giving particular importance to value of time and intended to steep tea practically with its naturality and stunning flavor. 
3- COLLECTIVE CONSUMPTION TEAS EXCEPT HOME USE
Description is same for Consumption Except Home Use, however, for related tea, only at the end of the sentence; our tea is only produced as “intended for places of collective consumption” and there is no difference with other teas with the same brand in terms of quality. 
 
4- AROMATIZED TEAS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Our products prepared carefully for those who want to taste tea’s unique natural flavor as well as a different flavor pleasure. 
a- GEMMA TEA
Our very special tea produced by aromatizing with natural bergamot essence. May be used as well by blending it with other teas.  
 
b- DİYARBAKIR,  OVİT,  UZUNGÖL TEAS IN 200 GR PACKAGE (IN CYLINDRICAL BOX)
Our teas put upon the market as specially blended are marketed under local names by aromatizing it with natural bergamot essence. 
 
 
5- GIFT TEAS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION:  Our outstanding teas with its quality and special blend that you can take to your friends in special days and visits. 
a- ÇAYKUR GIFT
Our product which is produced from tea buds selected carefully and by blending teas which has two separate cylindrical boxes as 150 gr and 250 gr within a special package and you can give as a gift for your friends.  
b- RİZE TEA GIFT
Our product produced from tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region which makes difference with its taste and scent that you can offer to your friends with contentment. 
c- TİREBOLU TEA NO 42
Our special product produced carefully from quality tea leaves of higher parts of Eastern Black Sea Region having different climatic conditions at its west and which is offered to consumers and visitors with its stunning steep and flavor which bears region’s name.  
(Tirebolu is the name of factory that tea is produced in and the number 42 is the “code” number given to our factory by our establishment.)
d- OVİT, UZUNGÖL, KAFKASÖR, AYDER
Our specially blended gift tea which is produced of tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region for domestic and foreign tourists to take it with them for advertisement of our region’s touristic localities. 
e- DİYARBAKIR TEA
Our specially blended gift tea which is produced of tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region which is mouth-pleasing for local people intended to Eastern and South Eastern Anatolia regions. 
f- GAP TEA
Our specially blended gift tea which is produced of tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region which is mouth-pleasing for local people put upon the market in Eastern, South Eastern and Eastern Mediterranean Regions. 
g- ANATOLIAN BUD
Our product which is produced of tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region with its special package decorated with patterns unique to Anatolia and having a different taste which is put up for sales throughout Turkey. 
h- ASSEMBLY’S TEA
Our product which is produced of tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region in order to be consumed and put up for sales in Turkish Grand National Assembly and its affiliated institutions.  
6- EXPORT TEAS
The aforementioned descriptions will be entered for export teas as well. 
7- TEA OF SPECIAL EVENTS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Our teas specially produced in memory of national and international organizations and events. 
 
GREEN TEAS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF GREEN TEA: Not oxidized tea variety produced from tea leaves harvested according to hoyle.  
1- PACKED BULK TEA
a- LEAF GREEN TEA –( PLAIN)
Our natural green tea blended large-grained, produced of tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region in order to be consumed by steeping.  
b- LEAF GREEN TEA- (MINT)
Our green tea, aromatized with natural mint and blended large-grained, produced of tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region in order to be consumed by steeping.
c- BURCUM GREEN TEA 
Our green tea, aromatized with natural bergamot essence and blended large-grained, produced of tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region in order to be consumed by steeping.
d- ORGANIC EMERALD GREEN TEA
Our organic green tea blended large-grained, produced of tea buds selected carefully from organic tea gardens of Hemşin district being an organic tea field. 
2- TEA BAGS
a- FILTERING GREEN TEA BAG (PLAIN)
Our plain filtering tea bag offered to consumers, which is produced by a different production system for those who appreciate value of time and health. 
b- FILTERING GREEN TEA BAG (MINT)
Our natural mint flavored filtering tea bag offered to consumers, which is produced by a different production system for those who appreciate value of time and health. 
c- FILTERING GREEN TEA BAG (APPLE)
Our natural apple flavored filtering tea bag offered to consumers, which is produced by a different production system for those who appreciate value of time and health. 
d- FILTERING GREEN TEA BAG (LEMON)
Our natural lemon flavored filtering tea bag offered to consumers, which is produced by a different production system for those who appreciate value of time and health. 
e- FILTERING GREEN TEA BAG (MELISSA)
Our natural melissa flavored filtering tea bag offered to consumers, which is produced by a different production system for those who appreciate value of time and health 
3- TEAS FOR CONSUMPTION EXCEPT HOME USE 
Text “INTENDED FOR COLLECTIVE CONSUMPTION PLACES” written for black teas regarding consumption except home use will be copied at the end of description of these teas.  
4- AROMATIZED TEAS
 
a- BURCUM GREEN TEA
Our green tea, aromatized with natural bergamot essence and blended large-grained, produced of tea buds selected carefully from special tea gardens of Eastern Black Sea Region in order to be consumed by steeping.
5- EXPORT TEAS
The aforementioned descriptions will be entered for export teas as well. 
 
 
ORGANIC TEAS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ORGANIC TEA: Tea that no chemical drugs and chemical fertilizers are used in its agriculture, which is not subjected to any process which can damage its organic structure during its production and which doesn’t contain any synthetic additives.
 
1- PACKED ORGANIC TEAS
a- ORGANIC -HEMŞİN TEA
Our product which makes organic tea’s difference with its stunning flavor, astringency and taste  which is produced under control at each stage from the field  to consumption with certified agricultural production in our Hemşin organic tea field. 
b- ORGANIC -RİZE TEA
Our product which gives pleasure of organic tea we offer to our consumers under control at each stage from the field to consumption with certified agricultural production in our Hemşin organic tea field.
 
2- ORGANIC TEA BAGS
a- ORGANIC- FILTERING TEA BAG
Our product which reflects difference of organic tea with its practical steeping way which is controlled at each stage from organic tea gardens to tea glass. 
 
3- GREEN ORGANIC TEAS
a- ORGANIC- EMERALD GREEN TEA 
Our organic green tea blended large-grained, produced by a different production system in order to be consumed by steeping, of tea buds selected carefully from organic tea gardens of Hemşin district being an organic tea field.  
 
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Processing Technology

TEA AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD 
 
Tea plant is cultivated on the zone approximately from 42nd latitude of north hemisphere to 24th latitude of south hemisphere in the world. To tell as geographical region, verges on piedmonts of Caucasus Mountains facing Black Sea, Turkey, Georgia and middle and south regions of Japan in the North and southern Brazil and South Eastern Africa in the South. Although the zone which is suitable to cultivate tea seems to be so large, regions where tea agriculture may be carried out within the said zone is a specific region covering southern piedmont of Himalayan mountains in Asia; Assam Region, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka, Java; south of Caspian Sea, Turkey, Kenya, Malawi, South Eastern African Countries and South America. The most important tea producing countries range as India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, China, Turkey and Japan among the aforementioned countries.     
Tea Production Regions of the World
Tea plant is always green and stooling continues all year long in regions where there is sufficient level of temperature and humidity such as South India, Sri Lanka, Java, Sumatra and Kenya. In places where there is temperature and humidity difference between seasons especially, except zones between 18 degree north and 18 degree south of the equator, in Northern and North Eastern India, North Eastern China and Japan, our neighbor Georgia and Caspian sea shores of Iran and our country, stooling doesn’t continue all year long.  Tea production of the world reaches 3,271,881 tons in year 2004. Countries which produce the most tea and have the most tea area are respectively India and China. 82% of the production is carried out in Asia, 15% in Africa, 3% in continents of America, Oceania and Europe. Tea agriculture is implemented on a zone approximately 2 648 000 hectares in 34 countries throughout the World. 89% of this zone is available in Asian continent, 9.2% in African continent and remaining 1.5% in Southern America and Oceania. China alone possesses 43% of world’ tea plantation area. India ranks 2nd, Sir Lanka 3rd, Indonesia 4th, Kenya 5th and Turkey 6th.
 
 
  TEA AGRICULTURE AND PRODUCTION IN OUR COUNTRY
 
First attempts regarding tea agriculture in Turkey developed after year 1917. On days following return of Batum and its environment to the homeland, a committee was sent to the region in order to make examinations.  Vice-director of Halkalı Agricultural School and Professor of Plants and Plant Health School Ali Rıza ERTEN being in the committee asserted in his report of 91 pages presented to the ministry of finance at his return that tea plant may be cultivated in our Eastern Black Sea shores having similar ecology. 
 
Ali Rıza Erten, in his report published afterwards by the ministry of finance in the form of book with the title “Agricultural Examinations on North Eastern Anatolia and Caucasia (Şimal-i Şarki Anadolu ve Kafkasya da Tetkikat-ı zirai)” specified that a tea cultivation attempt was made in year 1833 in Russia, however, since the selected region was not suitable for it, no success was achieved and so, in year 1892, a scientific committee sent to China, India, Japan and Ceylon in order to examine cultivation conditions and processing techniques of tea, planted 6000 tea saplings and a couple of hundreds okes of tea seeds they brought with them in Tbilisi, Sohum botanical gardens and gardens pertaining to Kutais province and according to results obtained, tea area was extended and thus, it was strived to restrain issuance of four millions gold for tea export and meanwhile, tea gained an economic value in the region together with efforts made by C.S. Popof who returned from eastern countries.        
 
Ali Rıza Erten, after presenting all detailed technical information on tea agriculture and processing in the said report, mentioned that in various years;
527.586 kgs of tea in year 1919
433.550 kgs of tea in year 1920
127.103 kgs of tea in year 1921
120.430 kgs of tea  in year 1922
670.930 kgs of tea in year 1923 
arrived to Istanbul Customs through import. 
Erten indicating the high amount of money paid for tea import, recommended to carry out tea agriculture in Rize region since it is suitable in terms of ecology. Furthermore, he mentioned that it would be beneficial to take measures to ensure production of lemon, orange, mandarin, bamboo in the region. 
Ali Rıza Erten’s report was not taken into consideration due to primary events occurred following first world war. Eastern Black Sea Region’s people who went to Batum and its environment to earn money before the war and couldn’t find this opportunity after the war caused appearance of these problems more prominently. People of the region who was obliged to work in various parts of the country due to unemployment and poverty and who was living away from their families, necessitated to open up new employment opportunities in the region. Important negotiations were made on these days in Turkish Grand National Assembly in order to solve the problem and create income resources for local people. At the end of long negotiations, Grand National Assembly was enacted the code 407 with the title cultivation of hazelnut, orange, mandarin, lemon and tea in Rize Province and Borçka District on 16 February 1924. 
Garden Cultures Station was established in Rize to make preliminary trials regarding tea agriculture right after the code entered in force and to ensure development of fruit cultivation in the region. Zihni Derin, Agricultural Public Inspector was appointed to organize and execute activities. Rize agricultural officer was sent to Batum in order to get information and opinion and to buy tea seeds. Production of tea sapling was started in today’s Central Nursery Garden of Tea Research Institute in Rize with an amount of tea seed bought in Batum. Zihni Derin went to Batum in the same year to make examinations on site.   
Saplings produced in Rize central nursery garden were distributed in one hand to local people and on the other hand, were dispatched to many of our cities to make production trials. Conditions available in these cities were not in conformity with ecology of tea specified in detail in Ali Rıza Erten’s report. Excitement for production and distribution of tea saplings decreased in the course of time in parallel with indifference of manufacturers. Manufacturers which were deprived of necessary support as well as had not enough information lost their interest towards tea agriculture since they didn’t know what future will bring. This situation continued until year 1933. 
Upon adoption of self-sufficiency principle by the Government and establishment of a program in year 1933, tea agriculture in our country was brought to the agenda again.  However, two more years passed to establish the organization and to complete preparation activities. During the examination visit made by Pr. Muhlis Erkmen, Agricultural Minister of that time to Rize Region in year 1935 in company with a scientific committee, it was decided that region is suitable for development of tea agriculture and industry in all respects.  As a consequence, it was decided to solve tea problem definitively. Pr. Dr. Şevket Raşit Hatipoğlu, member of scientific committee brought necessary measures to public attention in detail which should be taken in order to develop tea cultivation in our country together with technical and financial problems of tea cultivation in his book named Tea Economy in Turkey.         
We can see that two more years passed with these visits, discussions and correspondences and that it was reached to year 1937. Zihni Derin was appointed again at the fullest extent to put tea agriculture in order and to develop it. With experience of years lost in the past, works which were controlled firmly, started to be executed more consciously and in a programmed manner. 
Within year 1937, 20 tons of tea seed was purchased from Georgia to establish a seed breeding garden, to produce sapling and then to re-distribute it to manufacturers. For the same purpose, production was expanded by purchasing 50 tons of tea seeds in total, which consist of 30 tons bought in year 1939 and 20 tons in year 1940. Supporting of tea agriculture and manufacturers was secured on 29 March 1940 by Tea Code 3788. During this period, Zihni Derin made great efforts in fast development of tea agriculture by leading educated agriculturists.  
 
Meanwhile, president of Rize Chambers of Agriculture Muharrem Şadoğlu and president of Chamber of Commerce Hulusi Karadeniz provided outstanding services in expansion of tea in the region.  
Zihni Derin is known as father of tea due to his outstanding services in settlement of tea agriculture and establishment and development of tea industry. Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council which assessed such outstanding services awarded Zihni Derin in year 1969 with service award. 
With the code 3788 and the decree enacted based on this code, agricultural tea fields were determined according to ecological principles, as being from Araklı creek to borders of our neighbor Georgia as 15 km inside from the shore. A field of 30 thousand decares was allocated for tea agriculture by taking situation of tea consumption and import into consideration and it was decided Ziraat Bank to grant 25 liras of interest-free credit for manufacturers for 5 years. Under the same decree, in year 1940, it was permitted to carry out tea agriculture in Hopa, Sürmene and Of.    
In these years, green tea collected was processed in plants established by Zihni Derin and thereby, black tea was obtained. Tea also became a monopoly together with coffee in year 1942 and tea produced was given to the Monopoly Administration.  
Since green tea production increased progressively, obligation for establishment of tea factories disappeared. In year 1946, leading and execution of all affairs regarding tea was transferred to State Agricultural Affairs Office. First tea factory having 60 tons/ day capacity was put into operation in Fener district of Rize in year 1947 by the said office. 
Implementation of tea agriculture, tea production and marketing under responsibility of separate ministries was ended by a code enacted on 6.12.1971. Following establishment of General Directorate of Tea Authority with its short name ÇAYKUR in year 1947, Turkish Tea Industry entered in a fast development process.  
Tea production permit for private sector was granted by tea code dated 4.12.1984 numbered 3092 and thus, a new practice was initiated. During the period including years 1945- 1950, tea consumption approximately tripled. Therefore, extension of agricultural tea fields determined by code 3788 became obligatory and agriculture tea fields were increased up to 65 000 decares with the code 574 enacted on 27.2.1950. Later, instead of extension of agricultural tea fields by law, Council of Ministers was granted an authority on this matter by the code 6133 dated 10.07.1953. Interest-free credit amount to be granted to manufacturers which will establish tea fields was increased to 350 liras from 75 liras per decare with the code 6754 dated 25.06.1956.  With the decree 4/3840 dated 6.9.1955, tea field establishment permit was granted for Giresun Merkez, Bulancak, Keşap, Tirebolu, Göre from shores up to 15 km inside and 500 meters of height; with decree 4/9290 dated 22.07.1957 for Ordu Merkez, Perşembe, Fatsa and with decree 6/6578 dated 13.06.1966 for Akköse, Kendi Güleri, Tüfekçi, Ormancık, Çaybaşı, Taşçılar, Günebakan, Ulucami, Çalışanlar villages affiliated to Maçka. Meanwhile, by considering recording of unrecorded 65 000 decares of tea field with the decree 6/9603 dated 3.2.1968, total area of the region on which tea agriculture is carried out was increased up to 265 000 decares and tea cultivation area was increased to 400 000 decares in year 1972 and 646 000 decares in year 1983. Today, approximately 202 thousand manufacturers deal with tea agriculture on a tea area of 767 thousand decares and annual wet tea product harvest may vary between 1.000- 1.300 thousand tons depending on climatic and agricultural, technical conditions. Tea Agriculture in the region is carried out most often as small family business.   
As Çaykur, production of black and green tea as well as organic black tea and organic green tea was initiated in year 2009 in Hemşin Tea Factory in Hemşin County, Rize having a capacity of 75 tons/ day. 
79,4% of tea manufacturers have a tea field up to 0,001-5 decares, 17,6% up to 6-10 decares and 2,4% up to 11-15 decares. 65% of tea fields are located in Rize, 21% in Trabzon, 11% in Artvin and 3% in Giresun and Ordu cities. 
 



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